Waste of ferrous metallurgy are formed at the stage of extraction of ore. It should be noted that about 70% of the waste rock and tailings can be used for the production of building materials. Enterprises of ferrous metallurgy, iron ore mining, other components, including copper, zinc, lead, gold sent to the dumps.
In the sludge of the Krivoy Rog mining and processing plants, processing ferruginous quartzites, already accumulated 500 million/ton of tailings and every year they become 70-80 million tons more. Krivoy Rog mining and processing plant, receiving iron ore concentrate, a different breed sends in the dumps, and it contains emeralds, sapphires, topazes, amethysts, smoky and black agate, rare metals and gold. According to expert estimates of gold in the tailings of this plant annually about 10 tons and has accumulated at least 250 tons.
In the smelting of iron and steel alloys are formed (slag) containing silicon, magnesium, calcium, aluminum, iron, manganese. Disposal of blast furnace slag reaches 80%. In the cement industry uses granular slag. The concrete structure of these toxins are durable, trust and resistance to corrosion. From slag to produce a substitute for natural granite crushed stone from molten slag by the method of thermal processing receive slag pumice – thermoset.
Slags are formed in non-ferrous metallurgy, but here they are used not more than 15%. This is due to the presence in the waste numerous rare and nonferrous metals. The main task is to eliminate the maximum amount of useful components, and then use the slag as raw material in the construction industry.
Sinter plant also give a large percentage of waste. So cleaning gases from sinter of iron-containing dust produced by dry or wet method. Purification of gases using electrostatic precipitators and means dry dust cleaning allow you to eliminate almost entirely of wastewater discharge.
In the steel industry used a large number of refractory materials, wear out relatively quickly. Therefore, in order to reuse the technology of the use of worn, aged refractory materials in the production of refractory concrete. For this purpose, refractory materials are crushed and then mixed with the high brands of cement, and then kneaded ordinary cement mortar. Granulated refractory materials serve as a filler in this mortar. The solution obtained is made of refractory concrete or individual refractory products.
In steel production 80% of total amount of industrial solid waste are waste products. Metallurgical slag waste blast furnace and steel production annually otvorit ZO million tonnes (for example: iron smelting in 2001 in Ukraine amounted to 26.4 million tons, steel – 33.5 million tons). The extent of their use is 90 -93%.
Currently, all waste can be recycled into fertilizer or building materials. They can replace construction materials such as aggregate for concrete slabs and structures, to obtain a clay, a silicate or slag brick, for filling of the foundations of the railway or road. From slag can be used for manufacturing coarse sand.
The greatest economic effect was achieved in the production of blast furnace slag, slag pumice and mineral wool. Recently made a new building material-slacsite obtained from a mixture of slag, sand, clay and other components.
It can be used to cover the floors of buildings, as corrosion protection material for building structures, decorative wall cladding, can be used instead of ceramic, stone casting.
The economic effect of using slacsite in the construction due to the relatively low yourself the cost of products, improve the quality and increase the durability of structures and frequent houses, as well as a reduction in the specific investment in the development of material and technical base of construction.
Blast furnace slag is widely used for mass production of a wide range of building constructi(blocks, plates, etc.). The main cash products for the realization of solid wastes of metallurgy are various kinds of granulated slag – 54%; gravel – 35%; slag pumice – 6%; return the product for metallurgy – 4%